RFID Systems: Research Trends and Challenges, Miodrag Bolic, David
Simplot-Ryl, Ivan Stojmenovic, © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Part I COMPONENTS OF RFID SYSTEMS
Passive UHF RFID Systems in Practice
Akshay Athalye, and Tzu Hao Li
1.2 Ideal RFID System.
1.3 Practical RFID Systems.
1.4 Overview of the Book.
chapter addresses issues and challenges in existing passive UHF RFID
systems. The main focus is on low accuracy of reading. Other issues are
considered including lack of defined reading zone; sensitivity of the
system to orientation of the tag, deployed environment and type of the
object the tag is attached to; and effect of multiple tags, multiple
readers and mobility of tags and readers on reading accuracy. Some of
the desired features are pointed out including security, localization,
and ease of deployment.
high frequency, passive RFID, read rate, reading accuracy
and Operational Parameters of RFID Systems
2.2 Key Operational Parameters.
2.3 Classification of Commercially Available Products.
provides a cohesive overview of the key operational parameters that
affect the performance of all types of RFID systems. Organized in a
well structured taxonomical outline form, this chapter provides an
excellent introduction to the fundamentals of RFID systems for students
as well as professionals who are already experienced in the field but
would appreciate a deeper understanding of technology. Combining
contributions from leading academic and industry research, the authors
provide a comprehensive overview of the theories leading to expected
performance benefits such as low-cost, long distance tracking and real
time positioning, as well as deficiencies currently experienced in the
industry such as poor read rates and inadequate performance near
liquids and metals.
Semi-Passive, BAP, Passive RFID, Micro-Wireless, Dot, Energy
Harvesting, Near-Field, Far-Field, RTLS, Triangulation, Trilateration,
Multi-path, EIRP, ERP
3.1 Dipoles and Relatives.
3.2 T-Match and Relatives.
3.3 Putting it Together: Building an RFID Tag.
3.4 The Environment.
3.5 Conclusions, Trends, and Challenges.
chapter gives an overview of the principles and recent advances in UHF
RFID antenna design. This includes an overview of dipole operation and
the T-match commonly used by by UHF RFID tags. We then introduce a
circuit model for modeling and designing RFID tags. A section is
devoted to the process of designing a realistic RFID tag with wideband
performance. The chapter considers various environmental factors that
affect RFID performance in the "real world." Finally, the chapter shows
ways in which one can overcome the so-called "metal/water problem" by
use of microstrip RFID tags.
antennas, dipole antennas, microstrip antennas, impedance matching
RFID Tag Chip
Authors: Na Yan,
Yuqing Yang, and Qiang Li
4.1 Tag Architecture Systems.
4.2 Memory in Standard CMOS Processes.
4.3 Baseband of RFID Tag.
4.4 RFID Tag Performance Optimization.
chip design is presented in this chapter, including architecture,
RF/analog frontend, baseband, and non-volatile memory design. The
chapter begins with description of tag architecture. Next, high
efficiency frontend design of tag chip is explained. This section
includes rectifier, power (voltage) regulator, demodulator, clock
extraction or generation, backscattering, power on reset, voltage
(current) reference, random number generator, etc. Non-volatile memory
design in standard CMOS process is presented in details. Next, baseband
design subsection is described with the emphasis on the low power
techniques, such as sub-threshold and adiabatic technologies, and
design considerations, including how to select the clock rate of the
baseband cirsuit. RFID tag performance is analyzed, and some possible
future technologies for optimization of tag performance are mentioned.
chip design, non-volatile memory, low-power, low-cost.
Design of Passive
Tag RFID Readers
5.2 Basics of Passive RFID Operation.
5.3 Passive RFID Reader Designs.
5.4 Advanced Topics on RFID Reader Design.
provides an overview of passive RFID reader hardware design. The
principle of RFID operation is first reviewed to familiarize the
communication mechanism between a reader and a tag. The design
challenges are then presented and followed by functional block level
descriptions. To further the discussion to issues encountered in real
application environments, the chapter concludes with reader design and
analysis for dense reader operations.
RFID, RFID reader, RFID interrogator design
Concepts and Architecture
Loic Schmidt, and David Simplot-Ryl
6.2 Overview of an RFID Middleware Architecture.
6.3 Readers Management.
6.4 Data Management and Application-Level Events.
6.5 Store and Share Data.
middleware is a set of components which aims to manage RFID readers,
deals with RFID-events and data, and is connected to end-user
applications. The middleware is located between readers and business
applications. This chapter describes the general architecture of such a
middleware. It starts with the management of readers that includes
reader protocol/interface, monitoring, and settings. Next, data
management is addressed. An RFID application can generate a huge amount
of data which must be processed and stored intelligently in a database.
The important point here is the data “filtering and collection” or how
to transform a tag reading flow into some comprehensive “what, when and
where” events thanks to the use of the application-level event engine
(ALE). Next, we present how data are stored in the system and shared
between multiple sites, multiple partners. The main components here are
the EPC information service (EPCIS) and the object name server (ONS).
The former adds some business information and store events coming from
the ALE engine. The latter provides a mechanism to retrieve information
about an object from its identification number.
Frequency IDentification, middleware, Electronic Product Code,
EPCglobal, ALE, EPCIS, RP, LLRP, ONS
Part II TAG
7.1 Pure Aloha.
7.2 Slotted Aloha.
7.3 Framed Slotted Aloha.
systems, the primary aim of the reader is to identify tags quickly.
Hence, anti-collision protocols play an important role in arbitrating
tag replies such that a reader experiences minimal or no collisions in
each read round. Moreover, they must minimize idle slots to ensure high
system efficiency. Otherwise, a RFID reader will experience prolonged
identification delays, and also energy and bandwidth wastage.
Henceforth, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of Aloha based
anti-collision protocols. Specifically, we will present Pure Aloha
(PA), Slotted Aloha (SA), Framed Slotted Aloha (FSA), and their
variants. In addition, we will analyze their read performance with
increasing number of tags.
estimation function, Slotted Aloha, Framed Slotted Aloha
Anti-Collision Protocols for RFID Tags
8.2 Principles of Tree-Based Anti-Collision Protocols.
8.3 Tree Protocols in the Existing RFID Specifications.
8.4 Practical Issues and Transmission Errors.
8.5 Cooperative Readers and Generalized Arbitration Spaces.
system needs to be equipped with anti-collision protocol in order to
arbitrate over tag collisions and enable the reader to gather a
successful reply from each tag in its range. This chapter deals with an
important class of anti-collision protocols, called tree protocols.
Tree protocols are based on recursive solution and a query structure
that forms a binary tree. This chapter introduces the engineering
principles of tree protocols. We also introduce two practical tree
protocols for RFID systems and related them to the describe principles.
Furthermore, we discuss techniques that can be used to design tree
protocols that can adapt to various practical requirements, such as
transmission errors, tags that move in/out of reader range, etc.
Finally, we introduce a framework that can be used to design tree
protocols for scenarios with multiple cooperating readers.
protocols, anti-collision protocols, collision resolution protocols,
conflict resolution protocols, arbitration protocols, cooperative RFID
Comparison of TTF
and RTF UHF RFID Protocols
Johann Holm, and Henri-Jean Marais
9.2 Requirements for RFID Protocols.
9.3 Different Approaches Used in UHF Protocols.
9.4 Description of Stochastic TTF Protocols.
9.5 Comparison between ISO18000-6C and TTF Protocols.
RFID has gained much prominence in recent years, based on the promise
it holds to enable the tracking of large numbers of items at low cost,
both in supply chains as well as in transport systems. The performance
of passive UHF RFID systems, as well as its compliance with frequency
regulations, is largely impacted by the air-interface protocol employed
to control the communications between readers and transponders. In this
respect two opposing philosophies have been implemented with various
degrees of success: the first based on control of the communications by
the reader (so-called reader-talks-first or RTF protocols), and the
other based on stochastic behavior of the transponders without
interference from the reader (so-called tags-talk-first or TTF
protocols). In this chapter the inherent benefits of the two approaches
are described, as well as the way that recent technology developments
have impacted upon practical implementations of the competing
protocols. A comparison is drawn between the expected performances that
could be attained using either of these approaches, against the
background of typical target applications for passive UHF RFID.
Part III READER
Readers in Enterprise IT
Floerkemeier, Sanjay Sarma
10.1 Related Work.
10.2 RFID System Services.
10.3 Reader Capabilities.
10.4 RFID System Architecture Taxonomy.
10.5 EPCglobal Standards.
10.6 Adoption of High-Level Reader Protocols.
10.7 Potential Future Standardization Activities.
deployments require the configuration, monitoring and data management
of RFID readers. This chapter provides an overview of different
services deployed in intra-organizational RFID systems and analyzes
system architectures implemented today. We also compare emerging
standards developed by the EPCglobal community that aim to standardize
system interfaces and reader protocols in RFID deployments. Our
analysis distinguishes a centralized architecture, where a controller
device or a software component on an application server locally
controls the RFID readers, and an autonomous architecture, where the
RFID readers execute application logic and are managed by enterprise IT
Middleware, Reader Protocols, LLRP, ALE, RP
Interference in RFID Reader Networks
Won Kim and
Gyanendra Prasad Joshi
11.2 Interference Problem in RFID Reader Networks.
11.3 Access Mechanism, Regulations, Standards and Algorithms.
utilization of RFID system is increased drastically due to its wide
range of applications in various places. Multiple RFID readers try to
access the same tag at the same time where readers are deployed
densely, as a result of which the signals may interfere with each
other. Reader interference problem (also called reader collision
problem) is a bottleneck of overall system performance in a dense RFID
system. Current standard cannot solve the reader interference problem
completely. There are several reader anti-collision algorithms to
mitigate the reader interference problem. In this chapter, we will
discuss the reason of reader interference in RFID, standards and
regulations, existing anti-collision algorithms, their classification
and comparison. The contents of the chapter will be as follows:
introduction, reader interference problem in RFID, standards and
regulations, existing reader anti-collision algorithms, their
classification and comparison in terms of throughput, conclusion,
references, and questions.
collision problem, RFID reader anti-collision algorithms, RFID MAC
Coverage and Tag Report Elimination
Murali Krishna Ramanathan, Mehmet Koyuturk, Suresh Jagannathan, and
12.2 Overview of RFID Systems.
12.3 Tree Walking: An Algorithm for Detecting Tags in the Presence of
Collisions. 12.4 Reader Collision Avoidance.
12.5 Coverage Redundancy in RFID Systems: Comparison with Sensor
Networks. 12.6 Network Model.
12.7 Optimal Tag Coverage and Tag Reporting.
12.8 Redundant Reader Elimination Algorithms: A Centralized Heuristic.
12.9 RRE: A Distributed Solution.
12.10 Adapting to Topological Changes.
12.11 The Layered Elimination Optimization (LEO).
12.12 Related Work.
addresses two important tag detection problems occurring in RFID
systems. The first problem, of optimally covering tags, consists of
identifying a minimal set of readers that cover all tags present in the
system. The second problem, of optimally reporting detected tags,
consists of eliminating redundant tag reports generated by multiple
readers. The optimal tag coverage problem is equivalent to the problem
of determining the maximum number of redundant readers. A redundant
reader can be safely turned off or removed from the network without
affecting the number of tags covered. In this chapter, we first
describe the coverage redundancy problem in wireless sensor networks
and explain differences between this problem and the optimal tag
coverage problem. Second, we study different techniques for solving the
tag coverage and reporting problems. We show that the algorithms
studied are adaptive to system changes, including new tag and reader
deployments, as well as component leaves or failures.
collision avoidance, RFID coverage redundancy, optimal tag reporting
Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Mobile RFID Networks: Challenges and
13.2 Overview of FINDERS.
13.3 General Feasibility Study.
13.4 Unique Challenges and Tactics.
13.5 Related Work.
centers on delay/disruption-tolerant mobile RFID (Radio Frequency
IDentification) networks. In particular, we introduce a Featherlight
Information Network with Delay-Endurable RFID Support (FINDERS),
composed of passive RFID tags which are ultra light, durable, and
flexible, without power supply for long-lasting applications under
strict weight constraints and harsh environments. It expands the use of
RFID gear for wireless network construction, aiming to find events of
interest and gather aggregate information. In this chapter, we present
an analytic model to show the feasibility of FINDERS and discuss the
communication and networking challenges therein, due to its sporadic
wireless links, unique asymmetric communication paradigm, intermittent
computation capability, and extremely small memory of tags.
Communication, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN), Intermittent Computation,
Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID).
CHALLENGES IN RFID SYSTEMS.
Ranges and Read Rates for Passive RFID Systems
Fazhong Shen, Jianhua Shen, and Lixin Ran
14.2 Signal Descriptions and Formulations for Passive Backscatter RFID
Systems. 14.3 Improving the Read Range of a Passive RFID System.
14.4 Improving the Read Rate of a Passive RFID System.
14.5 Two Design Examples for RFID System.
range and the read rate characterize the performance of RFID systems
from different points of view. This chapter investigates the primary
principle of passive RFID systems in far-field range. Signal
descriptions and formulations of SNR and the read range are
theoretically presented. Based on that, the read range and read rate
issues are discussed further. Apart from the conclusions drawn directly
from the formulations, other research efforts related to improving read
rate and range are also introduced. At the end of this chapter, two
examples illustrating cost-effective designs of long-range RFID readers
utilizing off-the-shelf chips that were originally designed for cell
phones are presented.
range, read rate
Techniques of RFID Positioning
Zhang, Xin Li,
and Moeness Amin
15.2 Tag Range Estimation Techniques.
15.3 DOA Estimation Techniques.
15.4 RFID Positioning Techniques.
15.5 Improving Positioning Accuracy.
provides a comprehensive introduction of RFID positioning technologies
from both principle and technique perspectives. The majority of RFID
positioning systems are based on the fusion of multiple pieces of
relevant information, such as the range and the direction-of-arrival
(DOA). For example, trilateration is a commonly used approach which
determines the tag position by incorporating range information of an
RFID tag estimated at three or more spatially separated readers or
reader antennas. Range information can be obtained through received
signal strength (RSS), round-trip time-of-flight (TOF), time-difference
of arrival (TDOA), or phase difference-of-arrival (PDOA) of the RFID
signals. By using directional antennas or multi-antenna array
processing technology for the estimation of DOA information observed at
multiple positions, tags can also be localized by utilizing the
triangulation technique. Alternatively, RFID tag position can be
determined through hybrid techniques that combine the range and DOA
information. As a result, it is possible to locate the position of an
RFID tag with a single reader that provides both range and DOA
information. Other RFID tag positioning techniques include radio map
matching that compares the signal signatures with that of reference
tags with known position. In addition, the proximity method is a simple
but less accurate positioning approach that uses spatially separated
reader antennas and approximates the location of a tag by that of a
reader antenna through which the tag can be read.
trilateration, triangulation, received signal strength,
time-of-arrival, time-difference-of-arrival, time-of-flight,
direction-of-arrival, radio map matching, proximity.
Towards Secure and
Privacy-Enhanced RFID Systems
16.2 Security and Privacy.
16.3 Classification of RFID Systems.
16.4 Attacks on RFID Systems and Appropriate Countermeasures.
16.5 Lightweight Cryptography for RFID.
A survey and
taxonomy of state-of-the-art research related to the fundamentals of
security and privacy of RFID systems is presented. Attacks against
common RFID systems are described and evaluated, showing the need for
additional security and privacy mechanisms. RFID systems are especially
exposed to attacks on the radio interface such as eavesdropping,
replay, relay, jamming, tracking, and hotlisting. Side-channel,
physical implementation, and cryptanalytic attacks have emerged as
major threats to RFID security. Based on current experiences and on
ongoing research a summary of attacks and countermeasures is provided.
Lightweight cryptography forms the basis for new frameworks with
improved security and a summary of the relevant cryptographic
primitives is given. Considerable progress has recently been achieved
and secure symmetric encryption algorithms are feasible even for very
restricted transponders. This forms a basis for enhanced security and
privacy of future RFID systems and applications.
Security, Privacy, Cryptanalytic Attacks, Physical Implementation
Attacks, Lightweight Cryptography.
Approaches for Improving Security and Privacy Issues of RFID Systems
Koutarou Suzuki, and Shingo Kinoshita
17.2 Threats against the RFID System.
17.3 Required Properties.
17.4 Cryptographic Protocols for Identification with Privacy.
17.5 Cryptographic Protocols for Authentication without Privacy.
17.6 Cryptographic Protocols for Privacy and Other Requirements.
17.8 Real Systems and Attacks.
state-of-the-art research related to the security and privacy of RFID
systems. Applications and systems based on RFID technology should
satisfy requirements for preserving privacy and providing usability. We
classify the security and privacy issues of RFID systems based on
privacy issues, and moreover, authenticity, restriction and delegation
of traceability, forward security and other requirements. Then, we
survey cryptographic protocols for addressing solutions to these
Security, Cryptography, Attack, Cryptographic Protocol.
Technologies: Energy Harvesting for Self-Powered Autonomous RFID
18.2 Novel Low Power Architectures.
18.3 Energy Harvesting Optimized for RFID.
18.4 Future Trends in Energy Harvesting.
chapter examines energy harvesting (EH) for novel low power RFID based
sensor architectures to enable self-powered autonomous RFID systems.
Architectures such as Dual-Active and Micro-Wireless that rely on
stored on-board energy to enable greater range, higher throughput, and
more robust performance in electromagnetically unfriendly environments
are covered. Various forms of EH technology are explored that
supplement or fully replace batteries. The chapter introduces EH
approaches suitable for low-power RFID with adaptations that also
support wireless sensor network modalities. Various forms of EH
transducers such as solar, vibration, and thermoelectric are explored
for different applications. The chapter also covers hybrid approaches
that optimally combine various forms of EH transducers to meet these
new challenges in self-sufficient wireless sensors. Future trends that
construct EH devices from thin film micro-electro-mechanical systems
(MEMS) to enable high volume and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing
techniques are highlighted.
Piezoelectric, Electromagnetic, Vibration, Thermoelectric, Solar, MEMS,
Energy Harvesting, Active RFID, Micro-Wireless, Remote Sensors,
Wireless Sensor Networks, Power Management.
Emulators for Different Abstraction Layers of UHF RFID Systems
Alex Janek, Reinhold Weiß, Vojtech Derbek, Manfred Jantscher, Josef
Preishuber-Pfluegl, and Markus Pistauer
19.2 The Simulation/Emulation Platforms.
19.3 UHF RFID Simulation Platform.
19.4 Real-Time HIL-Verification and Emulation Platform.
19.5 Higher Class Tag Architecture Based on Energy Harvesting.
begins with an introduction to model-based design of UHF RFID systems
followed by the basic concepts of conformance and interoperability
testing. The following sections present the simulation/emulation
methodologies. The modeling and simulation platform creates a
hardware-software application wide model with the stress on high
modularity. As a result, a simulation tool will be developed that could
be used to optimize the application set up for evaluating the design of
hardware components and system parts of UHF RFID systems. Finally, the
design and verfication of an architecture of a RFID tag including
energy harvesting devices is introduced.
system, model-based development, HW/SW cosimulation, higher class tags
architectures, energy harvesting/scavenging
RFID Systems: Research Trends and Challenges, Miodrag Bolic, David
Simplot-Ryl, Ivan Stojmenovic, © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.